Latvian Prison Administration was established on 8 July 1919. Latvian Prison Administration at first was named Main Prison Board and it was under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Justice. In the beginning only four employees worked for Administration. Later the Central Prison Board was renamed as the Central Prison and Prison Management Administration. Gradually increased the number of employees working for Central Prison and Prison Management and under it's management were 19 prisons with 1861 inmate. In the fallowing years the number of prisons declined, but the number of prisoners increased.

During the period Soviet occupation the name of Prison Administration changed  several times – Administration of Corrective Labor Institutions, the Prison Administration and the Prison Department. The names changed also after the restoration of independence of the Republic of Latvia – Prison Administration, Prison Department and the Prison Administration.

From May 1990 until now Administration was governed by the - M. Aleksandrovičs, E. Krūmiņš, S. Pokšāns, V. Zahars, D. Lūks, S. Zlatoustovs, V. Puķīte un I. Spure.

From 1 January 2017 there are 10 penal institutions subordinate to Prison Administration that enforces pre-trial detention sanctions custodial sentences imposed by court and one Training Center that ensures the professional training of such employees of the Administration who do not have a special service rank, as well as the improvement of the professional qualification of officials.